A complex path of evolution
Geological research has convincingly shown that during the existence of Australopithecus the Earth’s climate became more dry, rain forests receded. Australopithecus lay in wait for the danger in open, treeless spaces. They needed to obtain food, including hunting. The lack of strong claws, teeth, adequate muscular strength has led to unique achievements, namely: the use of stone, sticks as tools and protection tools.
All in some way affected their evolution. As shown by the finds of parts of the skeletons of the Australopithecines are similar to man in structure of the several parts of the body. They moved on two legs. Over time they have adapted to changing environmental conditions.
So, the anthropoids, and fossil apes, in groups-herds, used the first tools: rocks, sticks for defense and obtaining food. But what food?
The materials of archaeological, geological and paleontological research in recent decades has shown that the Australopithecines used not only vegetable foods but also animals.
Hunting occupied a large place in the economy of the ancient people — it is an indisputable fact, but the premise of development as a form of practice originated and formed another prehuman stage of anthropogenesis. Predposlednyaya (omnivorous) originated from arboreal monkeys in the moment of transition, when they began to eat new kinds of plants growing on the ground, small animals, insects, perhaps, and the corpses of large animals and then to hunt with the stones that were originally used only in self-defense. Therefore, bone remains of animals, such as baboons, found along with the bones of Australopithecus, which bore traces of blows with blunt objects, they force you to change perspective on the nature of economic activities of the ancient hominid as a purely collecting economy. The predominance in the diet of human ancestors eating meat is a positive impact on the formation of the brain of higher fossil apes that had already been noted by F. Engels.
The brain has evolved with its owner on the long road from monkey to man no less, and perhaps more intensely and deliberately than other parts of the body. The Australopithecines, like monkeys of medium size, had a large brain already surpassed modern apes not only in absolute terms but also on its ratio to body weight. Progressive development of the brain of Australopithecus was due to: terrestrial existence; the transition of bipedal walking, K.; manipulation of objects, which were used as hunting and defense; the use of animal food.
Was probably another reason, the existence of which we can currently only speculate, largely based on my own experience. This reason, as it is now called, is stress or a stressful situation. It is in them most fully realized of the protective role of the organism in the creative and destructive plan. Siberian scientist I. Borodin conducted research in this area and came to the conclusion that, when the forests began to retreat, before the man faced dangers that have not always been able to adapt, to find ways of protection. Constant stress, which have become the norm, led to the formation of the nonspecific preclude fixtures — intelligence.
Over time under conditions of bipedal locomotion was improved apparatus not only brain, but also of orientation-motor processes. Released hand were used by Australopithecus for manipulating various objects, and accordingly improved kinetics. The development of motor functions expanded view of the world. Improved touch, which, in turn, contributed to higher associative centers of the brain. Accordingly, a change in environmental conditions led to the development of the Central nervous system. Although the Australopithecus Africanus ever came close to the man, he, like other fossil apes, were, according to Engels, one of the millennial attempts at “humanization of the APE”.
In ancient times in South Asia, as shown by archaeological excavations, also lived anthropoid apes. Gigantopithecus, negentropy, Australopithecus was higher primates who have switched to terrestrial mode of existence in relation to climate change and environmental conditions. The Asian fossil great apes — gigantopithecus an increase in body size. It gave them great advantage over their enemies — the predators in the struggle for existence, but at the same time contributed to passive adaptation to external conditions, deprived of opportunities to be flexible plastic in a changing world. As a result they died.
It is possible that the disappearance of gigantopithecus in no small measure contributed to the appearance of people. Armed artificially manufactured guns, more cohesive in its organized activities, they were stronger than their opponents, despite their enormous size and phenomenal power.
The tertiary period in Earth’s history was characterized not only by rapid changes in the landscapes of the earth surface, processes of formation of mountains, processes of deforestation, but a progressive evolution of the higher apes. She was influenced by the General biological laws and manifested in the formation of various directions. Adaptation to the environmental conditions affected the forms of biological behavior of highly developed animals, including anthropoids, and was a prerequisite of transformation, of one species of anthropoid apes into man.
One branch of the great apes, adapting to the conditions of the forest, went the way of woody specialization, such as Gibbons and orangutans; the other moved to a terrestrial lifestyle. One such species of anthropoid ancestors of man, anthropologists who attach particular importance to in search of the deep roots of ancestry of man and apes, may have been the proconsul (the skull found in 1948 in a layer of sediments, dated at 25-40 million years, on the island of Rudenga in Africa, Louis and Mary Leakey). The proconsul was the oldest monkey, but certain characteristics brought him to the man. As did Mary and Louis Leakey, this superdrine the shape of the anthropoid ancestors of man in its development was not a dead-end, “specialized”. There are such features (teeth, limbs) that could suggest the possibility of terrestrial existence.
Both branches of the great apes have evolved differently. Some had accepted, if I may say so, a passive, defensive form of evolution (fossils of higher primates — gigantopithecus, megadrop, the South African Australopithecus and its ; type — parantap cropnosis). Other, adapting to a changing environment, developed “approximately research” activities: stood up, took a stick. It was the “monkeys taking sticks”, our immediate anthropoid ancestors. It is at this stage appeared the first work which marked the transition from the animal state to ranuculaceae.
Then there was the first biological society, replaced a herd of monkeys and turned into a social Union of early hominids — the first primitive stage. Geographically they were located, as scientists believe, in North-East Africa. There, in Kenya, in 1972, discovered the fossil remains of anthropoid — kanapaka (age — 2.5 million years).
Another source of hominization was located in Central Asia, and South and southwest Asia. Perhaps one of them can be considered and Transcaucasia, where was found the remains of adamovitch — the ancient apes of Georgia.