A modern network of archaeological museums
A modern network of archaeological museums is quite complicated. They are United by a Committee of the International Council of museums (ICOM) museums of archaeology and history.
For the countries of southern and Central Europe is characterized by the establishment of museums at the site of the Greek and Roman cities, museums-reserves, national archaeological Museum: Syracuse, Sofia, etc.
Archaeological museums in Northern Europe is focused mainly on local archaeology, including medieval: the Viking Museum in Aarhus, and the Viking ship Museum in ROS-Kilda Denmark).
In Belgium, along with many specialised archaeological museums (Damme, Engin) and there are museums of industrial archaeology (Arstila).
In France, widespread museums in provincial cities (Auxerre, Babe, alençon, Liu-con, Noyon), museums dedicated to individual topics in archaeology: the Museum of prehistory aurignac, in the Museum of Egyptology in Lille, the Museum of Gallo-Roman civilization in Lyon, the Museum of underwater archaeology in Berck-sur-Mer.
With the European museums of the Mediterranean similar North African (national Museum of antiquities in Algiers, the open air Museum in El Asname, the Museum of antiquities in Cairo, the Museum of Greco-Roman antiquities in Alexandria). The uniqueness of the number of museums is determined by the nature monuments of the region – Natsionalnye in Tassili (rock paintings), the Museum “Royal tombs” in Luxor, Museum of Cheops boat at Giza.
The majority of the archaeological museums of Asian countries date back to the colonial period ( Archaeological Museum Paharpur in Bangladesh). Archaeological museums of India and South Asia was created based on the ancient architectural complexes ( Archaeological Museum in Kampong Volume in Kampuchea). The richest materials are concentrated in the museums of the capitals of the provinces of China. in museums – reserves. The Museum of clay warriors and horses from the tomb of the Empire Qin Shi Huang, the Museum Sanane.
Significant development of archaeological museums in countries of Latin America: national Museum of archaeology (Bolivia), the Archaeological Museum in Cochabamba, the Archaeological Museum in Recife (Brazil), Museum in Quito (Ecuador). The main themes of these museums – Indian civilization pre-Columbian America, the feature – the frequent connection of archaeological museums with natural science. In the famous National Museum of anthropology in Mexico city is manifested trait which is also typical for the USA and Canada connection of archaeological and ethnographic materials. This is due to the fact that American archaeology is part of anthropology. However, there are obstaravanie museums – University Museum in Pennsylvania (USA), Museum of the University of québec in Montreal (Canada), as well as major divisions in the “encyclopedic” museums – the Metropolitan Museum of art, the Museum of fine arts in Boston, the Royal Museum in Toronto.
In Russia the network of archaeological museums include: academic museums, in which the acquisition, preservation and exhibition of the subject to the solution of research tasks: the Museum of archaeology and Ethnography of the Urals scientific center of RAS, Ufa, Museum of history and culture of peoples of Siberia and the Far East, the Museum-reserve “Kostenki”, Anapa archaeological Museum-reserve “white sea petroglyphs”, “Staraya Ryazan”, Chersonese historical and archaeological Museum-reserve.
The museumification of archaeological monuments in Belarus are made in accordance with the decree or the decree of the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus. (Museumification) preceded by archaeological excavations, preservation of open archaeological sites and the erection over them of a stationary pavilion. Also provides for the care and maintenance of objects in the normal state.
The first attempt museumification of archaeological sites in Belarus refers to the archeological site tramadolnausea Krasnosel’skii mine, where it was planned to create an archaeological reserve for the purpose of preservation, research and display of the monument.
The success of the archaeological research of the Vitebsk squad M. A. Tkachev gave grounds to the Council of Ministers of the Republic to adopt a special resolution on education in Vitebsk archaeological Museum-reserve the ancient city. According to the regulations were provided for the annual archaeological excavations in 1984 and identified during the excavation of the building had to be preserved and be taken under a temporary canopy to the construction of the pavilion here stationary.
31 may 2005 the Council of Ministers signed a decree on the establishment of the twenty-seven tourist zones across the country. If earlier Belarusian archeologists finds hidden in the museums, we now propose to create a extremely unique site museums under the open sky.
After the excavation of the Parking lot in the village of Yurovichi, which is one of the most ancient settlements of primitive people on the territory of Belarus, in 2006 it was decided to create a Museum at the site. Work at this site was conducted in 1929. But Parking was considered poor, and in the next 30 years here untouched archaeologist. Just previous expeditions have not reached “rich” cultural layer. In 2005 archaeological group under the leadership of the head of the Department of archaeology of primitive society at the Institute of history, Academy of Sciences E. kalechits found the preserved head of a mammoth with tusks. The mammoth was lying upside down with his head and was in very good condition. However, when they began to get it, all crumbled into several pieces. Organics very poorly stored and susceptible to decay. On the territory of Belarus mammoths had been found earlier. There are about 200 finds, but few of them have survived: as a rule, tusks and teeth.
In addition, in Yurovichi, in 2006 it was discovered the 10th-11th centuries the settlement was overseen excavations senior research fellow at the Institute of history, Academy of Sciences Oleg job. The specialist claims that the village of Yurovichi is a very complex city. Dedinets, where lived a Prince occupies about one hectare. It is surrounded by a rampart and ditch. Roundabout town is still 5-6 hectares. Along with pots, kreslami were found a bone spoon for communion with the sign of Rurik, skates made of horse bones and other finds. The archaeologist believes that part of this mound could be turned into a Museum under the open sky.