Excavations of ancient Kozelsk.
Nearing completion of the archaeological excavations of the ancient works on Kozelsk is scheduled for summer
Archaeological research Kozelsk, one of the oldest cities in the lands of the Chernigov Principality – has begun relatively recently. The first excavations were organized in 1992 by the Institute of archaeology RAS, their main aim was to identify the location of Kozelsk, destroyed by Batu Khan in 1238 Works were wide-ranging and comprehensive, was attended by soil scientists, geomorphologists, geophysicists, experts were invited leading Russian historians and archaeologists. But the result was unexpected: the cultural layer of ancient time (11th-13th centuries) on the locations of excavations and pits were absent. In the end, in scientific publications, there was an assumption about the localization of annalistic city in completely different places, and not in Kozelsk on the Zhizdra.
The historical geography of the upper Oka archaeological region there was a new problem. The results of the work were of great public resonance not only at district level but also at regional and Federal. They began to affect on the policy of the Ministry of education and culture of the Kaluga region. Especially acute the problem is in connection with the assignment Applied for in 2009 with the title “City of military glory” (articles in the Federal media type “Kaluga archaeologists can cancel the decree of the President”, etc.).
Kaluga archaeologists, in contrast, continued to look for traces of the ancient in Kozelsk Kozelsk modern – the regional centre of Kaluga region and the search was very successful. The excavations, organized in 1992 by Moscow, was carried out within the medieval fortress of Kozelsk, the location of which is well-known (on the cards of the 18th century remains of the earthen ramparts). In 2010-2013 research was also conducted in the Central historical part of the city, but outside the boundaries of a medieval fortress on a hill near the mouth of Draguseni (the territory of the former bakery and private property). Currently there is no doubt that this area of the modern city occupies the site of the citadel (the fortress) ancient Kozelsk. During the excavations there were revealed and studied well-preserved cultural layer, containing abundance of ancient material, including the pre-Mongol stage. The issue with the localization of the ancient Kozelsk in the result of the work of these years was withdrawn.
In respect of the clothing material was the most effective work 2011 (the territory of the former bakery), because the excavation was at the site with ulaganayagan layer, in which well-preserved products of organics (leather, bone, wood).
2012 excavations were conducted on the street the Earthen shaft, near the building of the new baths. Its construction is not preceded, as required, the archaeological work, was eventually destroyed a significant area of the site the cultural layer of the ancient Kozelsk. A small area of the excavation gave, nevertheless, an interesting result was revealed the southern border town of ancient time, had a natural character of the gully (street Belevskaja Slide). Work 2012 marked the beginning of an entirely new phase of research: the identification and study of urban structure and topography of ancient Kozelsk.
Research continued in 2013. had equally important results. The excavation was located on the site of a household No. 3 on Zemlyanoy Val (now the territory of the monastery). According to the preliminary conclusion he came to remains of fortifications of the ancient citadel of Kozelsk. It records the traces of the powerful three fires. One of them, the most recent probably has to do with the tragedy of 1777, when burnt all the Central part of the city. The other two fires, by the host material and obtained radiocarbon dates relate to the ancient period and may be associated with the drama of the destruction of the city in 1238
Current 2014 scheduled the continuation of archaeological works at the territory. It is supposed to investigate the area where, according to archeologists, are placed the fortifications 1238
This text was written Kozelsky archaeologists Ph. D. Boldini I. V. and K. I. n. G. And Massalitina before the start of work. Now when in less than a week, it’s safe to say that in the archeological history of Kozelsk inscribed another page. In addition to the usual finds of glass objects characteristic of the urban culture of Ancient Russia, and found charred remains of wooden fortifications (while this is only a guess!), indicated the destruction of Kozelsk by the troops of Batu Khan.