Geological research has convincingly shown that during the existence of Australopithecus the Earth’s climate became more dry, rain forests receded. Australopithecus lay in wait for the danger in open, treeless spaces. They needed to obtain food, including hunting. The lack of strong claws, teeth, adequate muscular strength has led to unique achievements, namely: the use of stone, sticks as tools and protection tools.
All in some way affected their evolution. As shown by the finds of parts of the skeletons of the Australopithecines are similar to man in structure of the several parts of the body. They moved on two legs. Over time they have adapted to changing environmental conditions.
So, the anthropoids, and fossil apes, in groups-herds, used the first tools: rocks, sticks for defense and obtaining food. But what food?
The materials of archaeological, geological and paleontological research in recent decades has shown that the Australopithecines used not only vegetable foods but also animals.
Hunting occupied a large place in the economy of the ancient people — it is an indisputable fact, but the premise of development as a form of practice originated and formed another prehuman stage of anthropogenesis. Predposlednyaya (omnivorous) originated from arboreal monkeys in the moment of transition, when they began to eat new kinds of plants growing on the ground, small animals, insects, perhaps, and the corpses of large animals and then to hunt with the stones that were originally used only in self-defense. Therefore, bone remains of animals, such as baboons, found along with the bones of Australopithecus, which bore traces of blows with blunt objects, they force you to change perspective on the nature of economic activities of the ancient hominid as a purely collecting economy. The predominance in the diet of human ancestors eating meat is a positive impact on the formation of the brain of higher fossil apes that had already been noted by F. Engels. Continue reading
About three dozen metro stations can be considered as branches of the paleontological Museum. In their marble cladding can be found ancient fossils.
For some, the search for traces of the Jurassic period has turned into a hobby. Muscovite Alexander Mironenko walking in the subway and shoots shellfish, lilies and other ancient inhabitants, some over 100 million years. In his collection of over 700 images.
NAUTILUS AND SEA LILY
In 2000, the student Mironenko was on geological practice in suburban quarries. “We’ve seen a lot of fossils — the remains of ancient plants, animals, — tells Sasha. — And in Moscow, looking out the window of the carriages of the trains, a girl from our group shouted: “Look, Nautilus [clam]!” No it is, of course, not believed, laughed. But everything began to carefully examine the walls and floor at the stations. And that evening on the way home I found a Nautilus shell in the wall of the lobby on “Dobryninsky”. Sasha is now examined more than 100 stations. On his hunt he gets about once a month.
Especially a lot of fossils on the first built stations — then they were faced with natural marble. “Look closely to the walls of the old lines — red, blue, ring —advises Mironenko. — There is a very curious fossils”. According to him, “Dobryninskaya” and “Biblioteka imeni Lenina”.
If to come on “Dobryninsky” from the “Taganskaya”, approximately where the last stop of the car in the wall in a beautiful red marble you can see a scattering of sea lilies. And in the area of the first carriage — Nautilus with a diameter of 10-15 centimeters. Interesting because its shell is cut so well that you can see all the internal partitions. Not all museums have these items. And the “Library” near the transition to the “Borovitskaya” in yellow marble imprinted ductwork-rudist and gastropod shellfish of the Paleozoic era. The age of the mollusc — about 100 million years. Continue reading
The nineteenth century for prehistoric archaeology, as well as for the classic, was “the era of great archaeological discoveries.” In 1829, on the lake of Zurich in Switzerland were discovered hidden under water piles. They are not paying much attention, until in 1854 due to the strong drought is not exposed near the shores of the lake bottom. The locals, producing earthworks designed to recapture the water some part of the land, were found stone and bone tools, broken pottery. Learning of this, the Swiss archaeologists have begun excavating the pile and opened a settlement. There were several alternating layers. The top layer of sand followed (deep) layer of silt with remnants of dwellings, utensils, implements, then again a layer of sand, and under it another layer of silt with residential remains.
The existence of the pile settlements in ancient times it was known from the testimony of Herodotus, who described the settlement on the lake is Great-zias (Macedonia) in the V century BC On the pile dwellings in the same century according to Hippocrates and, finally, the bas-relief image on the Trajan’s column, Dating from the II century ad Modern pile settlements are known in many countries, mostly Equatorial, but in the nineteenth century they were still in Portugal.
Ancient pile settlements, open in Switzerland, belong to stone and bronze ages. Further pile settlements were opened in other locations in Switzerland and in other countries. These discoveries put comicsporn about three centuries. Due to the large number of monuments were able to establish that the upper layers containing bronze items, belong to the bronze age, and bottom, do not contain metal, but with a clearly Neolithic tools, Dating from the stone age. Continue reading