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A complex path of evolution

Geological research has convincingly shown that during the existence of Australopithecus the Earth’s climate became more dry, rain forests receded. Australopithecus lay in wait for the danger in open, treeless spaces. They needed to obtain food, including hunting. The lack of strong claws, teeth, adequate muscular strength has led to unique achievements, namely: the use of stone, sticks as tools and protection tools.

All in some way affected their evolution. As shown by the finds of parts of the skeletons of the Australopithecines are similar to man in structure of the several parts of the body. They moved on two legs. Over time they have adapted to changing environmental conditions.

So, the anthropoids, and fossil apes, in groups-herds, used the first tools: rocks, sticks for defense and obtaining food. But what food?

The materials of archaeological, geological and paleontological research in recent decades has shown that the Australopithecines used not only vegetable foods but also animals.

Hunting occupied a large place in the economy of the ancient people — it is an indisputable fact, but the premise of development as a form of practice originated and formed another prehuman stage of anthropogenesis. Predposlednyaya (omnivorous) originated from arboreal monkeys in the moment of transition, when they began to eat new kinds of plants growing on the ground, small animals, insects, perhaps, and the corpses of large animals and then to hunt with the stones that were originally used only in self-defense. Therefore, bone remains of animals, such as baboons, found along with the bones of Australopithecus, which bore traces of blows with blunt objects, they force you to change perspective on the nature of economic activities of the ancient hominid as a purely collecting economy. The predominance in the diet of human ancestors eating meat is a positive impact on the formation of the brain of higher fossil apes that had already been noted by F. Engels. Continue reading

The marble facing subway, you can find ancient fossils

About three dozen metro stations can be considered as branches of the paleontological Museum. In their marble cladding can be found ancient fossils.

For some, the search for traces of the Jurassic period has turned into a hobby. Muscovite Alexander Mironenko walking in the subway and shoots shellfish, lilies and other ancient inhabitants, some over 100 million years. In his collection of over 700 images.

NAUTILUS AND SEA LILY

In 2000, the student Mironenko was on geological practice in suburban quarries. “We’ve seen a lot of fossils — the remains of ancient plants, animals, — tells Sasha. — And in Moscow, looking out the window of the carriages of the trains, a girl from our group shouted: “Look, Nautilus [clam]!” No it is, of course, not believed, laughed. But everything began to carefully examine the walls and floor at the stations. And that evening on the way home I found a Nautilus shell in the wall of the lobby on “Dobryninsky”. Sasha is now examined more than 100 stations. On his hunt he gets about once a month.

Especially a lot of fossils on the first built stations — then they were faced with natural marble. “Look closely to the walls of the old lines — red, blue, ring —advises Mironenko. — There is a very curious fossils”. According to him, “Dobryninskaya” and “Biblioteka imeni Lenina”.

JURASSIC PARK

If to come on “Dobryninsky” from the “Taganskaya”, approximately where the last stop of the car in the wall in a beautiful red marble you can see a scattering of sea lilies. And in the area of the first carriage — Nautilus with a diameter of 10-15 centimeters. Interesting because its shell is cut so well that you can see all the internal partitions. Not all museums have these items. And the “Library” near the transition to the “Borovitskaya” in yellow marble imprinted ductwork-rudist and gastropod shellfish of the Paleozoic era. The age of the mollusc — about 100 million years. Continue reading

Archaeological finds: war is the natural state of man

The other day Kenyan military base in Somalia was attacked by militants of the Islamist group “Shabab”. At the time of the attack, Kenyan soldiers were sound asleep, and it was expensive. Dozens of soldiers and opened her eyes. As the Kenyan member of Parliament Yusuf Hassan, “It was a shock. We don’t Burundi, Ethiopia we don’t, we are not Uganda. Our country has no history of wars. With us this never happened”. It was at this same time, in the lagoon on the shores of lake Turkana in the Kenyan expedition of archaeologists tried to prove the opposite. She found traces of the massacre, which happened approximately 10,000 years ago – before people began to engage in agriculture.

Apparently, one group of hunters attacked another group and were brutally murdered her. Talked about broken skulls, said arrows and spears in the skeletons.

Last Wednesday the journal “Nature” published a report by scientists. It States that from 12 found the bodies of those killed 10 were with traces of explicit violence. In addition, they discovered the bodies of 15 people killed in the same battle. Remains found in Northern Kenya on the shores of the lake, talking about the cruelty of the massacre. So one warrior stuck two arrows, which pierced his skull, and his knees were broken with maces. A woman was found pregnant in sixth month, killed by a blow to the head, perhaps bound his hands before he died.

Violence has always been present in people’s lives. But when it began to develop into war? This question is hotly debated in science. Some scholars argue that war is deeply rooted in human evolution. As evidence they point to the fights between different tribes of chimpanzees. Others stress the influence of complex and hierarchical human societies and the raids on the warehouses of the fruit farming.

March Mirazon Lahr and Robert Foley from Cambridge University and Turkana basin Institute in Kenya’s capital Nairobi, and a group of other scientists, came to the conclusion, reported in “Nature”: was found near the shores of lake Turkana indicate the existence of wars between prehistoric hunting tribes. Continue reading

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