The other day Kenyan military base in Somalia was attacked by militants of the Islamist group “Shabab”. At the time of the attack, Kenyan soldiers were sound asleep, and it was expensive. Dozens of soldiers and opened her eyes. As the Kenyan member of Parliament Yusuf Hassan, “It was a shock. We don’t Burundi, Ethiopia we don’t, we are not Uganda. Our country has no history of wars. With us this never happened”. It was at this same time, in the lagoon on the shores of lake Turkana in the Kenyan expedition of archaeologists tried to prove the opposite. She found traces of the massacre, which happened approximately 10,000 years ago – before people began to engage in agriculture.
Apparently, one group of hunters attacked another group and were brutally murdered her. Talked about broken skulls, said arrows and spears in the skeletons.
Last Wednesday the journal “Nature” published a report by scientists. It States that from 12 found the bodies of those killed 10 were with traces of explicit violence. In addition, they discovered the bodies of 15 people killed in the same battle. Remains found in Northern Kenya on the shores of the lake, talking about the cruelty of the massacre. So one warrior stuck two arrows, which pierced his skull, and his knees were broken with maces. A woman was found pregnant in sixth month, killed by a blow to the head, perhaps bound his hands before he died.
Violence has always been present in people’s lives. But when it began to develop into war? This question is hotly debated in science. Some scholars argue that war is deeply rooted in human evolution. As evidence they point to the fights between different tribes of chimpanzees. Others stress the influence of complex and hierarchical human societies and the raids on the warehouses of the fruit farming.
March Mirazon Lahr and Robert Foley from Cambridge University and Turkana basin Institute in Kenya’s capital Nairobi, and a group of other scientists, came to the conclusion, reported in “Nature”: was found near the shores of lake Turkana indicate the existence of wars between prehistoric hunting tribes. Continue reading
The Museum “Archaeology, Ethnography and ecology of Siberia” of the Kemerovo state University begins its story since the 70’s, when Professor A. I. Martynov (head of. the Department of archaeology) and Professor T. N. Vagina (head the Department of Zoology) began to create the Metropolitan museums of archaeology and Zoology. Their work was crowned with success. In 1980, the museums were open. Presented in the Museum materials were collected by teachers and students of historical and biological faculties more than 30 years.
In 1997 the museums combined. Today the Museum is a major unit of the University, which has a library, a Photograph collection, an archive . restoration and taxidermy workshops, laboratory, office, storage, classrooms.
The Museum has more than 310 000 units. In addition to materials on archeology and Ethnography of southern Siberia, there are copies of petroglyphs of the Altai, Khakassia, Tuva, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, osteological. paleontological, Zoological, entomological and ornithological collections.
With the collections of our Museum are schoolchildren. students, graduate students. scientists and leading specialists from different countries. The Museum funds and expositions are a training base for specialized courses and practical classes on the history of primitive society, Ethnography, museology and ecology I.
The Museum created a Board of leading specialists of the relevant branches of science under the leadership of Vice-rector of University Ph. D. Professor B. P. Nevzorova. The Museum holds archaeological, Museum practices, Museum staff are actively involved in the creation of scientific works, scientific-methodical recommendations. Actively implemented the program “Museum – school – the unified educational space” for use of the regional component of school curricula for history, geography, biology and ecology. In the halls of the Museum are the feasts of the presentation of scientific papers, exhibitions, conferences. Continue reading
If someone is lucky enough on the beach to find fossilized seashells, it is possible to recognize them easily. But there are many fossils, looking for that hard to guess what they represented. The problem is compounded by the fact that many of the fossils are incomplete or poorly preserved. Sometimes the doubts are even scientists. In our review of the 10-ka fossils, which for many decades was not recognized.
Fossilized Ammonites are quite common today, but for thousands of years it took for anything except shellfish. The ancient Greeks thought they were RAM horns, and named the Amish in honor of the Egyptian God Amun, who was depicted with similar horns. The ancient Chinese called it the stone-horns for the same reason. In Nepal, fossilized Ammonites were considered a relic left by the God Vishnu. The Vikings thought of them as sacred petrified offspring of the world serpent of Ermengarda.
In the middle ages Ammonites were known in Europe as snake stones because it was believed that it was the petrified body of a coiled serpent, which turned into stone and Christian saints. Today it became known that the Ammonites is only fossilized shells of creatures that became extinct about four hundred million years ago. Continue reading