The great Patriotic war has left thousands of material evidence of the bitter and terrible events, all included in the memory of the people. The land for almost 69 years keeps these “treasures”, time, time showing them to the world. During the excavation of the German bunkers and trenches, a variety of engineering obstacles are interesting little things. Site that remember those terrible events that span thousands of kilometers. Archaeological excavations in Russia are conducted by pathfinders that meet various interests: from scientific, historical, to materialistic, narrow-minded. In the process, they seek to find evidence of life (both household and military) of the Soviet troops and enemy troops.
Excavations in the Tula region
Of great interest to archaeologists of any type (“white”, “gray”, “black”) represent the objects of everyday life of soldiers, uniforms and firearms. Near the village of Kamenskoe excavations of the German dugouts. And this work has yielded good fruit in the form of valuable exhibits, which settled in the district Museum. On the territory of this township was held the offensive two rifle divisions of the enemy – 113 and 338. A detachment of “Patriots” was found near artillery positions weight bullet casings and guns. During excavations, archaeologists remarkableness were surprised to see not far from the surface they found a bottle of cognac (“Hennessy”), which is not easy preserved, but preserved all the contents in excellent condition. There were found some items of ammunition in good condition: helmet, gas mask, shells, and other equipment. They were transferred to the Museum. Continue reading
A new genetic analysis of archaeological finds has shown that some of the early inhabitants of Europe mysteriously disappeared by the end of the last ice age, and were largely replaced by other.
The discovery was confirmed by the analysis of dozens of ancient fossils, collected throughout Europe. Genetic replacement is likely to be the result of rapid climate change, which earlier inhabitants of Europe are unable to adapt quickly enough, says study co-author, Cosimo Post, archaeogenetic doctoral student at the University of tübingen in Germany.
The temperature change at the time was “huge compared to climate change in this century” . — told the Post. “Imagine that the environment has changed quite dramatically”.
Twisted family tree
Europe has a long and complicated genetic heritage. Genetic studies have shown that the first modern humans who came from Africa, somewhere between 40 and 70 thousand years ago, soon began to mate with local Neanderthals. At the beginning of the agricultural revolution, 10-12 thousand years ago, farmers from the Middle East walked across Europe, gradually displacing the local hunter-gatherers. thousand years ago, nomadic horsemen called Yamna came from the steppes of the present Ukraine and mingled with the local population. In addition, according to the survey for 2013, published in the journal Nature Communications . found another lost group of ancient Europeans mysteriously vanished about 4.5 thousand years ago. Continue reading
Interest in antiquities was awakened in Russia in the Petrine era. Picking up collections, active excavations, and special research contributed to the formation of archaeology as a scientific discipline in the nineteenth century. In the twentieth century, archaeology became a discipline taught at universities. Academic research, combined with extensive training of archaeology students have achieved marked success in the study of the material culture of the past.
The first year students of historical faculty offered a course entitled “fundamentals of archaeology”. For students majoring in the Department, are compulsory special course: the “Field archaeology”, “the Stone age, Eneolit and bronze age” “Iron age”, “Antique archaeology”, “Archaeology of Ancient Russia”, “Source”, “Scientific methods in archaeology”, “Typological seminar, Historiography of archaeology”, “Archaeological practice”.
In addition to required courses for students specializing in a particular area of archaeology, the Department staff and scientists from other institutions, including the Institute of archaeology RAS, the Institute of Ethnology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, State Historical Museum, read different courses.
In addition to training, the Department has research topical seminars: Novgorod (hands. V. L. Yanin), Smolensk (hands. T. A. Pushkina), “History of ancient craft” (hands. N. In.Ryndina), “Morphology of antiquities” (hands. Y. L. Shchapova), “Problems of archaeology of the early iron age” (hands. I. V. Yatsenko, A. R. Kantorovich). The seminars bring together undergraduate and graduate students, researchers and teachers not only of Moscow state University and other scientific institutions of Moscow.
The basis of fieldwork for students-historians I course for majoring students has always been a standing expedition, which at present is reduced to four. It – Novgorod (hands. V. L. Yanin), Smolensk (hands. T. A. Pushkina), the Crimean (hands. E. A. Popova), don (hands. N. B.Leonova). The materials of the expeditions become themes of course and diploma works of students, PhD theses of graduate students. The Department’s Continue reading