A new genetic analysis of archaeological finds has shown that some of the early inhabitants of Europe mysteriously disappeared by the end of the last ice age, and were largely replaced by other.
The discovery was confirmed by the analysis of dozens of ancient fossils, collected throughout Europe. Genetic replacement is likely to be the result of rapid climate change, which earlier inhabitants of Europe are unable to adapt quickly enough, says study co-author, Cosimo Post, archaeogenetic doctoral student at the University of tübingen in Germany.
The temperature change at the time was “huge compared to climate change in this century” . — told the Post. “Imagine that the environment has changed quite dramatically”.
Twisted family tree
Europe has a long and complicated genetic heritage. Genetic studies have shown that the first modern humans who came from Africa, somewhere between 40 and 70 thousand years ago, soon began to mate with local Neanderthals. At the beginning of the agricultural revolution, 10-12 thousand years ago, farmers from the Middle East walked across Europe, gradually displacing the local hunter-gatherers. thousand years ago, nomadic horsemen called Yamna came from the steppes of the present Ukraine and mingled with the local population. In addition, according to the survey for 2013, published in the journal Nature Communications . found another lost group of ancient Europeans mysteriously vanished about 4.5 thousand years ago. Continue reading
The other day Kenyan military base in Somalia was attacked by militants of the Islamist group “Shabab”. At the time of the attack, Kenyan soldiers were sound asleep, and it was expensive. Dozens of soldiers and opened her eyes. As the Kenyan member of Parliament Yusuf Hassan, “It was a shock. We don’t Burundi, Ethiopia we don’t, we are not Uganda. Our country has no history of wars. With us this never happened”. It was at this same time, in the lagoon on the shores of lake Turkana in the Kenyan expedition of archaeologists tried to prove the opposite. She found traces of the massacre, which happened approximately 10,000 years ago – before people began to engage in agriculture.
Apparently, one group of hunters attacked another group and were brutally murdered her. Talked about broken skulls, said arrows and spears in the skeletons.
Last Wednesday the journal “Nature” published a report by scientists. It States that from 12 found the bodies of those killed 10 were with traces of explicit violence. In addition, they discovered the bodies of 15 people killed in the same battle. Remains found in Northern Kenya on the shores of the lake, talking about the cruelty of the massacre. So one warrior stuck two arrows, which pierced his skull, and his knees were broken with maces. A woman was found pregnant in sixth month, killed by a blow to the head, perhaps bound his hands before he died.
Violence has always been present in people’s lives. But when it began to develop into war? This question is hotly debated in science. Some scholars argue that war is deeply rooted in human evolution. As evidence they point to the fights between different tribes of chimpanzees. Others stress the influence of complex and hierarchical human societies and the raids on the warehouses of the fruit farming.
March Mirazon Lahr and Robert Foley from Cambridge University and Turkana basin Institute in Kenya’s capital Nairobi, and a group of other scientists, came to the conclusion, reported in “Nature”: was found near the shores of lake Turkana indicate the existence of wars between prehistoric hunting tribes. Continue reading
The nineteenth century for prehistoric archaeology, as well as for the classic, was “the era of great archaeological discoveries.” In 1829, on the lake of Zurich in Switzerland were discovered hidden under water piles. They are not paying much attention, until in 1854 due to the strong drought is not exposed near the shores of the lake bottom. The locals, producing earthworks designed to recapture the water some part of the land, were found stone and bone tools, broken pottery. Learning of this, the Swiss archaeologists have begun excavating the pile and opened a settlement. There were several alternating layers. The top layer of sand followed (deep) layer of silt with remnants of dwellings, utensils, implements, then again a layer of sand, and under it another layer of silt with residential remains.
The existence of the pile settlements in ancient times it was known from the testimony of Herodotus, who described the settlement on the lake is Great-zias (Macedonia) in the V century BC On the pile dwellings in the same century according to Hippocrates and, finally, the bas-relief image on the Trajan’s column, Dating from the II century ad Modern pile settlements are known in many countries, mostly Equatorial, but in the nineteenth century they were still in Portugal.
Ancient pile settlements, open in Switzerland, belong to stone and bronze ages. Further pile settlements were opened in other locations in Switzerland and in other countries. These discoveries put comicsporn about three centuries. Due to the large number of monuments were able to establish that the upper layers containing bronze items, belong to the bronze age, and bottom, do not contain metal, but with a clearly Neolithic tools, Dating from the stone age. Continue reading