A new genetic analysis of archaeological finds has shown that some of the early inhabitants of Europe mysteriously disappeared by the end of the last ice age, and were largely replaced by other.
The discovery was confirmed by the analysis of dozens of ancient fossils, collected throughout Europe. Genetic replacement is likely to be the result of rapid climate change, which earlier inhabitants of Europe are unable to adapt quickly enough, says study co-author, Cosimo Post, archaeogenetic doctoral student at the University of tübingen in Germany.
The temperature change at the time was “huge compared to climate change in this century” . — told the Post. “Imagine that the environment has changed quite dramatically”.
Twisted family tree
Europe has a long and complicated genetic heritage. Genetic studies have shown that the first modern humans who came from Africa, somewhere between 40 and 70 thousand years ago, soon began to mate with local Neanderthals. At the beginning of the agricultural revolution, 10-12 thousand years ago, farmers from the Middle East walked across Europe, gradually displacing the local hunter-gatherers. thousand years ago, nomadic horsemen called Yamna came from the steppes of the present Ukraine and mingled with the local population. In addition, according to the survey for 2013, published in the journal Nature Communications . found another lost group of ancient Europeans mysteriously vanished about 4.5 thousand years ago. Continue reading
If someone is lucky enough on the beach to find fossilized seashells, it is possible to recognize them easily. But there are many fossils, looking for that hard to guess what they represented. The problem is compounded by the fact that many of the fossils are incomplete or poorly preserved. Sometimes the doubts are even scientists. In our review of the 10-ka fossils, which for many decades was not recognized.
Fossilized Ammonites are quite common today, but for thousands of years it took for anything except shellfish. The ancient Greeks thought they were RAM horns, and named the Amish in honor of the Egyptian God Amun, who was depicted with similar horns. The ancient Chinese called it the stone-horns for the same reason. In Nepal, fossilized Ammonites were considered a relic left by the God Vishnu. The Vikings thought of them as sacred petrified offspring of the world serpent of Ermengarda.
In the middle ages Ammonites were known in Europe as snake stones because it was believed that it was the petrified body of a coiled serpent, which turned into stone and Christian saints. Today it became known that the Ammonites is only fossilized shells of creatures that became extinct about four hundred million years ago. Continue reading
Stone grave — hi from antiquity. Wonderful region — the Azov steppe! Here, as in planetary chronicle, lists all milestones in the history of the Earth — everywhere geological monuments, ancient burial mounds, stone images, traces of an ancient settlement. Among these stands out “stone island” with a height of about 12 meters and a length of more than 20 — Stone Tomb.
The stone Grave is located 2 km from the village of Patience Melitopol district of Zaporozhye region and is a heap of stones covering about 3,000 square meters, height of 12 meters. The pile is shaped like a mound (in Ukrainian grave), hence the name. Stone grave at first, probably, was a Sandstone shallow Sarmatian sea, the only way out of Sandstone in the whole Azov-black sea basin, which makes it a unique geological formation. After leaving the water the former Sarmatian sea shallow, sandy left the array, the top of which (presumably due to the influence of iron lateritic loam) turned into solid Sandstone. This array of Sandstone 240 on 160 meters on top of the fine sand was in the path of the old riverbed of the Breast and for a long time (up to the shallowing of the river and displacement of the riverbed to the West) remained the island in the river. As a result water and air erosion, the Sandstone massif much ass and gradually rasolomanana many pieces. Currently Stone Tomb is a sandy hill, covered with large stones. Among heaps of stones, many natural cavities — caves, passages and the like.
The first researcher who mentioned the Stone tomb, was N. And. Veselovsky. Digging out a nearby Stone Graves in 1889 the mound, the archeologist went to the village of Patience “to check rumours”. Veselovsky found a “stone mound”, suggested that this artificial construction, in 1890 excavated several caves, but not finding any treasure or burial, became disillusioned and stopped working, leaving only a small short Entry on the Grave Stone. Continue reading