The Museum of archaeology of Moscow is located in underground pavilion at the depth of 7 meters in the historic center of the city. The Museum was opened in 1997, after large-scale excavations at the Manege square in the construction of the shopping center “Okhotny Ryad”. The main exhibit of the Museum is the preserved foundations of the Voskresensky bridge, which once spanned across the river Neglinka. With the resurrection of the bridge began as a way to Tver, and then and in St. Petersburg. Before its construction this place there was a ferry. In the beginning of XVII century was built the bridge was the first stone bridge in Moscow. It can be seen on the plans of Moscow of the XVII century. In 1740 instead of the old bridge by the architect P. Heyden was new erected, the white stone bridge. He was more than 100 meters long and reaches 30 meters in width. Of the five arches of the bridge the flow was only one – right, when viewed in the direction of the bridge with the gallery of the Museum. The design of the bridge is quite well preserved due to the fact that, in 1817-19, during the restoration works after the war of 1812, the river Neglinka enclosed pipe, and the Voskresensky bridge as unnecessary covered. Continue reading
The cross is an ancient symbol of humanity, a magical sign known since pagan times. Images of the cross, discovered during archaeological excavations, belong to the earliest periods of the history of the Ancient East, Asia, Egypt, Africa, the Mediterranean and Europe.
Archaeologists have established that the image of the Egyptian cross “Ankh”, symbolizing the notion “life”, there are more than six thousand years! For more than three thousand years of existence of Ancient Egypt Ankh — the key to eternal life — an indispensable attribute of the deity and the Pharaoh. The Romans, the creators of the Grand Empire on the shores of the Mediterranean sea, used a cross in the form of two crossed wooden beams for the punishment of rebels and criminals, and since the first century, on the cross, after being tortured, crucified Christians. The usual instrument of execution was called “Antoniev” T-shaped cross.
In the Christian era, the cross has taken on many different forms and deepest content. The very moment of Christ’s Crucifixion is interpreted by the Church as the beginning of a new history of man. “Since that time, — is told in “the Law of God,” in the world of human ideas and concepts, there was a complete coup. Cross, a former first instrument of agonizing pain, cruel homicide, to become the reliable support person. The way, the truth and the life begin with the cross,without which it is impossible to escape”.
Christian cross symbols the most extensively studied and expressed in the writings of the Russian historian A. S. Uvarov. He believed the earliest the image of the so-called acrobranche cross, found in the caves and catacombs of Rome and Gaul, where he was hiding everywhere persecuted the followers of the new faith in the III – IV centuries. Abiding in them, they probably won’t once consoled himself by reading the lines of Paul’s letter, which States that everyone has the opportunity “to take predlagayu hope (i.e. the cross) that the soul is like an anchor steadfast and sure.” Some ancient writers mention an X-shaped cross, also served the Romans for torture of prisoners. It ended his life, the Apostle Andrew, and later the Christians the cross was a sign that hid the name of the Lord. Continue reading
The main part of the collections of ancient gold Special storeroom of the Hermitage is composed mainly thanks to scientific archaeological investigations conducted in the territory of the Northern black sea. A separate study there started here in the XVIII century. Already in 1763 in Ukraine near the modern Kirovograd was one of the first excavated Scythian kurgans — Cast, well-known in science under the name of Melgunovka treasure . containing a variety of gold and silver jewelry and weapons.
However, a systematic study of the antiquities of the South of Russia began only in the second quarter of the nineteenth century. The impetus for this was a wonderful discovery of the Kul-Oba in 1830 near Kerch. Luxury graves in this burial mound, found in it works of art, scientific world acquainted with the masterpieces of Greek toreutics, caused a sensation among his contemporaries. Most of the stuff was taken to the Hermitage, where they formed the nucleus of world famous collections of antiquities of Cimmerian Bosporus (Greek name of the Kerch Strait).
Since the opening of the Kul-Oba area of Kerch and the Taman Peninsula and the southern steppes became a place of permanent archaeological searches. During the XIX — early XX century here worked a whole galaxy of Russian archaeologists and archaeology fans, the result of which has been gained huge semesterisation on culture and art of the local tribes and Greek colonies of the Northern black sea.
In 1859 in St. Petersburg of the Imperial Archaeological Commission . in whose jurisdiction was all basic research in Russia. Since then the new discoveries and, primarily, articles of precious metals, found in mounds and burials, invariably got into the Hermitage. Since that time, Russian archaeology was developing in a scientific direction.
The oldest specimens of toreutics, open in the CIS are the middle of the third Millennium B. C. These samples are from the barrow, which was discovered in 1897 on the streets of the city of Maikop in the North Caucasus. Continue reading