process

The echo of the war. archaeological excavations in Russia

The great Patriotic war has left thousands of material evidence of the bitter and terrible events, all included in the memory of the people. The land for almost 69 years keeps these “treasures”, time, time showing them to the world. During the excavation of the German bunkers and trenches, a variety of engineering obstacles are interesting little things. Site that remember those terrible events that span thousands of kilometers. Archaeological excavations in Russia are conducted by pathfinders that meet various interests: from scientific, historical, to materialistic, narrow-minded. In the process, they seek to find evidence of life (both household and military) of the Soviet troops and enemy troops.

Excavations in the Tula region

Of great interest to archaeologists of any type (“white”, “gray”, “black”) represent the objects of everyday life of soldiers, uniforms and firearms. Near the village of Kamenskoe excavations of the German dugouts. And this work has yielded good fruit in the form of valuable exhibits, which settled in the district Museum. On the territory of this township was held the offensive two rifle divisions of the enemy – 113 and 338. A detachment of “Patriots” was found near artillery positions weight bullet casings and guns. During excavations, archaeologists remarkableness were surprised to see not far from the surface they found a bottle of cognac (“Hennessy”), which is not easy preserved, but preserved all the contents in excellent condition. There were found some items of ammunition in good condition: helmet, gas mask, shells, and other equipment. They were transferred to the Museum. Continue reading

A complex path of evolution

Geological research has convincingly shown that during the existence of Australopithecus the Earth’s climate became more dry, rain forests receded. Australopithecus lay in wait for the danger in open, treeless spaces. They needed to obtain food, including hunting. The lack of strong claws, teeth, adequate muscular strength has led to unique achievements, namely: the use of stone, sticks as tools and protection tools.

All in some way affected their evolution. As shown by the finds of parts of the skeletons of the Australopithecines are similar to man in structure of the several parts of the body. They moved on two legs. Over time they have adapted to changing environmental conditions.

So, the anthropoids, and fossil apes, in groups-herds, used the first tools: rocks, sticks for defense and obtaining food. But what food?

The materials of archaeological, geological and paleontological research in recent decades has shown that the Australopithecines used not only vegetable foods but also animals.

Hunting occupied a large place in the economy of the ancient people — it is an indisputable fact, but the premise of development as a form of practice originated and formed another prehuman stage of anthropogenesis. Predposlednyaya (omnivorous) originated from arboreal monkeys in the moment of transition, when they began to eat new kinds of plants growing on the ground, small animals, insects, perhaps, and the corpses of large animals and then to hunt with the stones that were originally used only in self-defense. Therefore, bone remains of animals, such as baboons, found along with the bones of Australopithecus, which bore traces of blows with blunt objects, they force you to change perspective on the nature of economic activities of the ancient hominid as a purely collecting economy. The predominance in the diet of human ancestors eating meat is a positive impact on the formation of the brain of higher fossil apes that had already been noted by F. Engels. Continue reading

New artifacts of ancient civilizations

Thanks to continued this year to archaeological excavations in the territory of Armenia identified a lot of unique artifacts, evidence of ancient civilizations in our land. According to Armenian archaeologists, found in the regions of Armenia artifacts worthy of decorating the richest collections of such museums as the Hermitage and the Louvre.

Director of the Institute of archaeology and Ethnography, National Academy of Sciences of Armenia Pavel Avetisyan believes this year the site plan has been successful and fruitful. He sobowale “archive” artifacts of Artashat . unique in that it was found during excavations stamps were dated to 3-4 century – the period of the Sassanids. “This year we found about 800 seals. In different parts of the settlement before that since the 70s, has uncovered such “archives” and found a huge number of similar seals, but all belonged to the end of the 2 1 century, i.e. to the pre-Christian period. The last artifacts is really new and very important facts,” – said the Director of the Institute.

According to Avetisyan, the seals were engraved portraits of kings and their names. “Now these seals are stored at the Institute of archaeology and Ethnography: they are cleared, they “work” specialists, after which they will be transferred to the Museum of history of Armenia,” he said.

Sensational printing pattern found in the ancient settlement of Aknashen. Here, archeologists discovered the residential layer, which dates to the 7th Millennium before Christ.

The artifacts found in the medieval capital of Armenia – Dvin – fragments of pottery, glass, may become a benchmark for the region. Excavations were conducted in the southern part of the hill, resulting in “open” kiln earlier period – the “iron” of a century with two air ducts. At the Western site is “open” is also part of the Arab walls of buildings, the Eastern section was occupied by burials and excavations ceased. Continue reading

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