Fossils called the fossil remains of plants and animals. Many of them played a major role in folk beliefs and traditions, which provide fossils of magical and medicinal properties. Without fossils all our knowledge about past life on Earth was limited to the period of the last few millennia. To determine which animals lived on our planet in the distant past, they were the shape and size and in what time disappeared, modern science uses left their footprints: footprints and fossils found in the ice and rocks, a kind of negative of the flora and fauna of days gone by. Among the fossils come across startling instances, the beauty of which is staggering. No wonder our ancestors endowed them with magical properties. One of the most famous fossils are Ammonites, cephalopod molluscs with a spiral shell that lived until the Cretaceous, the size of which varied from two inches to nearly two meters. Worthy of mention and the ancestors of the belemnites squid living in the waters of the seas of the Mesozoic. Instead of suction cups of their tentacles are equipped with hooks, and a tapered tail carried the sink, which has reached our days in the form of fossils. It is now more than 200 million years from the moment when the Earth disappeared trilobites, primitive arthropods insects of the Paleozoic era, their fossils so far found in rocks. Another type of fossil molluscs — bokordici related to the order of plastinchatousykh. Their fossils have the shape of a heart and very beautiful. Many civilizations believed Ammonites powerful amulet and gave them supernatural properties.
Some fossils correspond to the organisms that existed in the prehistoric period and surviving, like molluscs, known in Menorca called “eyes of fortune”.
Protection and luck
Hindus believed that the Ammonites and the sacred in them lives the spirit of Vishnu, whose light illuminates the way of the warriors, guiding them to victory. In the Middle ages European peasants have hung sink in the barn to protect the animals from evil spells, and not to give cow’s milk to turn sour. Today these fossils are used as talismans, giving their owners peace of mind and ability to handle difficult situations. Continue reading
Geological research has convincingly shown that during the existence of Australopithecus the Earth’s climate became more dry, rain forests receded. Australopithecus lay in wait for the danger in open, treeless spaces. They needed to obtain food, including hunting. The lack of strong claws, teeth, adequate muscular strength has led to unique achievements, namely: the use of stone, sticks as tools and protection tools.
All in some way affected their evolution. As shown by the finds of parts of the skeletons of the Australopithecines are similar to man in structure of the several parts of the body. They moved on two legs. Over time they have adapted to changing environmental conditions.
So, the anthropoids, and fossil apes, in groups-herds, used the first tools: rocks, sticks for defense and obtaining food. But what food?
The materials of archaeological, geological and paleontological research in recent decades has shown that the Australopithecines used not only vegetable foods but also animals.
Hunting occupied a large place in the economy of the ancient people — it is an indisputable fact, but the premise of development as a form of practice originated and formed another prehuman stage of anthropogenesis. Predposlednyaya (omnivorous) originated from arboreal monkeys in the moment of transition, when they began to eat new kinds of plants growing on the ground, small animals, insects, perhaps, and the corpses of large animals and then to hunt with the stones that were originally used only in self-defense. Therefore, bone remains of animals, such as baboons, found along with the bones of Australopithecus, which bore traces of blows with blunt objects, they force you to change perspective on the nature of economic activities of the ancient hominid as a purely collecting economy. The predominance in the diet of human ancestors eating meat is a positive impact on the formation of the brain of higher fossil apes that had already been noted by F. Engels. Continue reading
The cross is an ancient symbol of humanity, a magical sign known since pagan times. Images of the cross, discovered during archaeological excavations, belong to the earliest periods of the history of the Ancient East, Asia, Egypt, Africa, the Mediterranean and Europe.
Archaeologists have established that the image of the Egyptian cross “Ankh”, symbolizing the notion “life”, there are more than six thousand years! For more than three thousand years of existence of Ancient Egypt Ankh — the key to eternal life — an indispensable attribute of the deity and the Pharaoh. The Romans, the creators of the Grand Empire on the shores of the Mediterranean sea, used a cross in the form of two crossed wooden beams for the punishment of rebels and criminals, and since the first century, on the cross, after being tortured, crucified Christians. The usual instrument of execution was called “Antoniev” T-shaped cross.
In the Christian era, the cross has taken on many different forms and deepest content. The very moment of Christ’s Crucifixion is interpreted by the Church as the beginning of a new history of man. “Since that time, — is told in “the Law of God,” in the world of human ideas and concepts, there was a complete coup. Cross, a former first instrument of agonizing pain, cruel homicide, to become the reliable support person. The way, the truth and the life begin with the cross,without which it is impossible to escape”.
Christian cross symbols the most extensively studied and expressed in the writings of the Russian historian A. S. Uvarov. He believed the earliest the image of the so-called acrobranche cross, found in the caves and catacombs of Rome and Gaul, where he was hiding everywhere persecuted the followers of the new faith in the III – IV centuries. Abiding in them, they probably won’t once consoled himself by reading the lines of Paul’s letter, which States that everyone has the opportunity “to take predlagayu hope (i.e. the cross) that the soul is like an anchor steadfast and sure.” Some ancient writers mention an X-shaped cross, also served the Romans for torture of prisoners. It ended his life, the Apostle Andrew, and later the Christians the cross was a sign that hid the name of the Lord. Continue reading