science

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The echo of the war. archaeological excavations in Russia

The great Patriotic war has left thousands of material evidence of the bitter and terrible events, all included in the memory of the people. The land for almost 69 years keeps these “treasures”, time, time showing them to the world. During the excavation of the German bunkers and trenches, a variety of engineering obstacles are interesting little things. Site that remember those terrible events that span thousands of kilometers. Archaeological excavations in Russia are conducted by pathfinders that meet various interests: from scientific, historical, to materialistic, narrow-minded. In the process, they seek to find evidence of life (both household and military) of the Soviet troops and enemy troops.

Excavations in the Tula region

Of great interest to archaeologists of any type (“white”, “gray”, “black”) represent the objects of everyday life of soldiers, uniforms and firearms. Near the village of Kamenskoe excavations of the German dugouts. And this work has yielded good fruit in the form of valuable exhibits, which settled in the district Museum. On the territory of this township was held the offensive two rifle divisions of the enemy – 113 and 338. A detachment of “Patriots” was found near artillery positions weight bullet casings and guns. During excavations, archaeologists remarkableness were surprised to see not far from the surface they found a bottle of cognac (“Hennessy”), which is not easy preserved, but preserved all the contents in excellent condition. There were found some items of ammunition in good condition: helmet, gas mask, shells, and other equipment. They were transferred to the Museum. Continue reading

New artifacts of ancient civilizations

Thanks to continued this year to archaeological excavations in the territory of Armenia identified a lot of unique artifacts, evidence of ancient civilizations in our land. According to Armenian archaeologists, found in the regions of Armenia artifacts worthy of decorating the richest collections of such museums as the Hermitage and the Louvre.

Director of the Institute of archaeology and Ethnography, National Academy of Sciences of Armenia Pavel Avetisyan believes this year the site plan has been successful and fruitful. He sobowale “archive” artifacts of Artashat . unique in that it was found during excavations stamps were dated to 3-4 century – the period of the Sassanids. “This year we found about 800 seals. In different parts of the settlement before that since the 70s, has uncovered such “archives” and found a huge number of similar seals, but all belonged to the end of the 2 1 century, i.e. to the pre-Christian period. The last artifacts is really new and very important facts,” – said the Director of the Institute.

According to Avetisyan, the seals were engraved portraits of kings and their names. “Now these seals are stored at the Institute of archaeology and Ethnography: they are cleared, they “work” specialists, after which they will be transferred to the Museum of history of Armenia,” he said.

Sensational printing pattern found in the ancient settlement of Aknashen. Here, archeologists discovered the residential layer, which dates to the 7th Millennium before Christ.

The artifacts found in the medieval capital of Armenia – Dvin – fragments of pottery, glass, may become a benchmark for the region. Excavations were conducted in the southern part of the hill, resulting in “open” kiln earlier period – the “iron” of a century with two air ducts. At the Western site is “open” is also part of the Arab walls of buildings, the Eastern section was occupied by burials and excavations ceased. Continue reading

Archaeological finds: war is the natural state of man

The other day Kenyan military base in Somalia was attacked by militants of the Islamist group “Shabab”. At the time of the attack, Kenyan soldiers were sound asleep, and it was expensive. Dozens of soldiers and opened her eyes. As the Kenyan member of Parliament Yusuf Hassan, “It was a shock. We don’t Burundi, Ethiopia we don’t, we are not Uganda. Our country has no history of wars. With us this never happened”. It was at this same time, in the lagoon on the shores of lake Turkana in the Kenyan expedition of archaeologists tried to prove the opposite. She found traces of the massacre, which happened approximately 10,000 years ago – before people began to engage in agriculture.

Apparently, one group of hunters attacked another group and were brutally murdered her. Talked about broken skulls, said arrows and spears in the skeletons.

Last Wednesday the journal “Nature” published a report by scientists. It States that from 12 found the bodies of those killed 10 were with traces of explicit violence. In addition, they discovered the bodies of 15 people killed in the same battle. Remains found in Northern Kenya on the shores of the lake, talking about the cruelty of the massacre. So one warrior stuck two arrows, which pierced his skull, and his knees were broken with maces. A woman was found pregnant in sixth month, killed by a blow to the head, perhaps bound his hands before he died.

Violence has always been present in people’s lives. But when it began to develop into war? This question is hotly debated in science. Some scholars argue that war is deeply rooted in human evolution. As evidence they point to the fights between different tribes of chimpanzees. Others stress the influence of complex and hierarchical human societies and the raids on the warehouses of the fruit farming.

March Mirazon Lahr and Robert Foley from Cambridge University and Turkana basin Institute in Kenya’s capital Nairobi, and a group of other scientists, came to the conclusion, reported in “Nature”: was found near the shores of lake Turkana indicate the existence of wars between prehistoric hunting tribes. Continue reading

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