Geological research has convincingly shown that during the existence of Australopithecus the Earth’s climate became more dry, rain forests receded. Australopithecus lay in wait for the danger in open, treeless spaces. They needed to obtain food, including hunting. The lack of strong claws, teeth, adequate muscular strength has led to unique achievements, namely: the use of stone, sticks as tools and protection tools.
All in some way affected their evolution. As shown by the finds of parts of the skeletons of the Australopithecines are similar to man in structure of the several parts of the body. They moved on two legs. Over time they have adapted to changing environmental conditions.
So, the anthropoids, and fossil apes, in groups-herds, used the first tools: rocks, sticks for defense and obtaining food. But what food?
The materials of archaeological, geological and paleontological research in recent decades has shown that the Australopithecines used not only vegetable foods but also animals.
Hunting occupied a large place in the economy of the ancient people — it is an indisputable fact, but the premise of development as a form of practice originated and formed another prehuman stage of anthropogenesis. Predposlednyaya (omnivorous) originated from arboreal monkeys in the moment of transition, when they began to eat new kinds of plants growing on the ground, small animals, insects, perhaps, and the corpses of large animals and then to hunt with the stones that were originally used only in self-defense. Therefore, bone remains of animals, such as baboons, found along with the bones of Australopithecus, which bore traces of blows with blunt objects, they force you to change perspective on the nature of economic activities of the ancient hominid as a purely collecting economy. The predominance in the diet of human ancestors eating meat is a positive impact on the formation of the brain of higher fossil apes that had already been noted by F. Engels. Continue reading
The other day Kenyan military base in Somalia was attacked by militants of the Islamist group “Shabab”. At the time of the attack, Kenyan soldiers were sound asleep, and it was expensive. Dozens of soldiers and opened her eyes. As the Kenyan member of Parliament Yusuf Hassan, “It was a shock. We don’t Burundi, Ethiopia we don’t, we are not Uganda. Our country has no history of wars. With us this never happened”. It was at this same time, in the lagoon on the shores of lake Turkana in the Kenyan expedition of archaeologists tried to prove the opposite. She found traces of the massacre, which happened approximately 10,000 years ago – before people began to engage in agriculture.
Apparently, one group of hunters attacked another group and were brutally murdered her. Talked about broken skulls, said arrows and spears in the skeletons.
Last Wednesday the journal “Nature” published a report by scientists. It States that from 12 found the bodies of those killed 10 were with traces of explicit violence. In addition, they discovered the bodies of 15 people killed in the same battle. Remains found in Northern Kenya on the shores of the lake, talking about the cruelty of the massacre. So one warrior stuck two arrows, which pierced his skull, and his knees were broken with maces. A woman was found pregnant in sixth month, killed by a blow to the head, perhaps bound his hands before he died.
Violence has always been present in people’s lives. But when it began to develop into war? This question is hotly debated in science. Some scholars argue that war is deeply rooted in human evolution. As evidence they point to the fights between different tribes of chimpanzees. Others stress the influence of complex and hierarchical human societies and the raids on the warehouses of the fruit farming.
March Mirazon Lahr and Robert Foley from Cambridge University and Turkana basin Institute in Kenya’s capital Nairobi, and a group of other scientists, came to the conclusion, reported in “Nature”: was found near the shores of lake Turkana indicate the existence of wars between prehistoric hunting tribes. Continue reading
The Museum “Archaeology, Ethnography and ecology of Siberia” of the Kemerovo state University begins its story since the 70’s, when Professor A. I. Martynov (head of. the Department of archaeology) and Professor T. N. Vagina (head the Department of Zoology) began to create the Metropolitan museums of archaeology and Zoology. Their work was crowned with success. In 1980, the museums were open. Presented in the Museum materials were collected by teachers and students of historical and biological faculties more than 30 years.
In 1997 the museums combined. Today the Museum is a major unit of the University, which has a library, a Photograph collection, an archive . restoration and taxidermy workshops, laboratory, office, storage, classrooms.
The Museum has more than 310 000 units. In addition to materials on archeology and Ethnography of southern Siberia, there are copies of petroglyphs of the Altai, Khakassia, Tuva, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, osteological. paleontological, Zoological, entomological and ornithological collections.
With the collections of our Museum are schoolchildren. students, graduate students. scientists and leading specialists from different countries. The Museum funds and expositions are a training base for specialized courses and practical classes on the history of primitive society, Ethnography, museology and ecology I.
The Museum created a Board of leading specialists of the relevant branches of science under the leadership of Vice-rector of University Ph. D. Professor B. P. Nevzorova. The Museum holds archaeological, Museum practices, Museum staff are actively involved in the creation of scientific works, scientific-methodical recommendations. Actively implemented the program “Museum – school – the unified educational space” for use of the regional component of school curricula for history, geography, biology and ecology. In the halls of the Museum are the feasts of the presentation of scientific papers, exhibitions, conferences. Continue reading