A new genetic analysis of archaeological finds has shown that some of the early inhabitants of Europe mysteriously disappeared by the end of the last ice age, and were largely replaced by other.
The discovery was confirmed by the analysis of dozens of ancient fossils, collected throughout Europe. Genetic replacement is likely to be the result of rapid climate change, which earlier inhabitants of Europe are unable to adapt quickly enough, says study co-author, Cosimo Post, archaeogenetic doctoral student at the University of tübingen in Germany.
The temperature change at the time was “huge compared to climate change in this century” . — told the Post. “Imagine that the environment has changed quite dramatically”.
Twisted family tree
Europe has a long and complicated genetic heritage. Genetic studies have shown that the first modern humans who came from Africa, somewhere between 40 and 70 thousand years ago, soon began to mate with local Neanderthals. At the beginning of the agricultural revolution, 10-12 thousand years ago, farmers from the Middle East walked across Europe, gradually displacing the local hunter-gatherers. thousand years ago, nomadic horsemen called Yamna came from the steppes of the present Ukraine and mingled with the local population. In addition, according to the survey for 2013, published in the journal Nature Communications . found another lost group of ancient Europeans mysteriously vanished about 4.5 thousand years ago. Continue reading
Interest in antiquities was awakened in Russia in the Petrine era. Picking up collections, active excavations, and special research contributed to the formation of archaeology as a scientific discipline in the nineteenth century. In the twentieth century, archaeology became a discipline taught at universities. Academic research, combined with extensive training of archaeology students have achieved marked success in the study of the material culture of the past.
The first year students of historical faculty offered a course entitled “fundamentals of archaeology”. For students majoring in the Department, are compulsory special course: the “Field archaeology”, “the Stone age, Eneolit and bronze age” “Iron age”, “Antique archaeology”, “Archaeology of Ancient Russia”, “Source”, “Scientific methods in archaeology”, “Typological seminar, Historiography of archaeology”, “Archaeological practice”.
In addition to required courses for students specializing in a particular area of archaeology, the Department staff and scientists from other institutions, including the Institute of archaeology RAS, the Institute of Ethnology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, State Historical Museum, read different courses.
In addition to training, the Department has research topical seminars: Novgorod (hands. V. L. Yanin), Smolensk (hands. T. A. Pushkina), “History of ancient craft” (hands. N. In.Ryndina), “Morphology of antiquities” (hands. Y. L. Shchapova), “Problems of archaeology of the early iron age” (hands. I. V. Yatsenko, A. R. Kantorovich). The seminars bring together undergraduate and graduate students, researchers and teachers not only of Moscow state University and other scientific institutions of Moscow.
The basis of fieldwork for students-historians I course for majoring students has always been a standing expedition, which at present is reduced to four. It – Novgorod (hands. V. L. Yanin), Smolensk (hands. T. A. Pushkina), the Crimean (hands. E. A. Popova), don (hands. N. B.Leonova). The materials of the expeditions become themes of course and diploma works of students, PhD theses of graduate students. The Department’s Continue reading
All our knowledge about amber, we have archaeological discoveries. It is with the help of archaeologists, were found unique items made of amber, which to this day are kept in different museums of amber. According to archaeological findings it was possible to determine when people first learned about amber, what properties it was endowed, were made as amulets and ornaments of amber, and many other useful things.
On the territory of the former Soviet Union amber found during excavations of almost all the forest belt of the European part of Russia to Ural and Siberia. In the South of the archaeological finds of amber are found, including the Northern black sea region. Abroad Baltic amber is found near the walls of ancient Troy is a state in Northwest Asia Minor, and in the tombs of Mycenae in Greece, the Mayans in Mexico, in the tombs of the pharaohs of Egypt, Greece, Rome and other States.
By studying archeological finds, scientists have concluded that people are already 9 thousand years familiar with amber. During the excavation of the Parking of primitive people in Austria, in the caves of Moravia and Upper Pyrenees, were found raw pieces of amber. And the first amber jewellery, people began to make about 7 thousand years ago. This is evidenced by the beads found in Denmark, the Baltics, Belomorye and Ukraine, it is now known deposits of amber. Amber jewellery, and how to define a scientist, Baltic, represented in Continue reading