The nineteenth century for prehistoric archaeology, as well as for the classic, was “the era of great archaeological discoveries.” In 1829, on the lake of Zurich in Switzerland were discovered hidden under water piles. They are not paying much attention, until in 1854 due to the strong drought is not exposed near the shores of the lake bottom. The locals, producing earthworks designed to recapture the water some part of the land, were found stone and bone tools, broken pottery. Learning of this, the Swiss archaeologists have begun excavating the pile and opened a settlement. There were several alternating layers. The top layer of sand followed (deep) layer of silt with remnants of dwellings, utensils, implements, then again a layer of sand, and under it another layer of silt with residential remains.
The existence of the pile settlements in ancient times it was known from the testimony of Herodotus, who described the settlement on the lake is Great-zias (Macedonia) in the V century BC On the pile dwellings in the same century according to Hippocrates and, finally, the bas-relief image on the Trajan’s column, Dating from the II century ad Modern pile settlements are known in many countries, mostly Equatorial, but in the nineteenth century they were still in Portugal.
Ancient pile settlements, open in Switzerland, belong to stone and bronze ages. Further pile settlements were opened in other locations in Switzerland and in other countries. These discoveries put comicsporn about three centuries. Due to the large number of monuments were able to establish that the upper layers containing bronze items, belong to the bronze age, and bottom, do not contain metal, but with a clearly Neolithic tools, Dating from the stone age. Continue reading