The most important discoveries in the field of prehistoric archaeology
The nineteenth century for prehistoric archaeology, as well as for the classic, was “the era of great archaeological discoveries.” In 1829, on the lake of Zurich in Switzerland were discovered hidden under water piles. They are not paying much attention, until in 1854 due to the strong drought is not exposed near the shores of the lake bottom. The locals, producing earthworks designed to recapture the water some part of the land, were found stone and bone tools, broken pottery. Learning of this, the Swiss archaeologists have begun excavating the pile and opened a settlement. There were several alternating layers. The top layer of sand followed (deep) layer of silt with remnants of dwellings, utensils, implements, then again a layer of sand, and under it another layer of silt with residential remains.
The existence of the pile settlements in ancient times it was known from the testimony of Herodotus, who described the settlement on the lake is Great-zias (Macedonia) in the V century BC On the pile dwellings in the same century according to Hippocrates and, finally, the bas-relief image on the Trajan’s column, Dating from the II century ad Modern pile settlements are known in many countries, mostly Equatorial, but in the nineteenth century they were still in Portugal.
Ancient pile settlements, open in Switzerland, belong to stone and bronze ages. Further pile settlements were opened in other locations in Switzerland and in other countries. These discoveries put comicsporn about three centuries. Due to the large number of monuments were able to establish that the upper layers containing bronze items, belong to the bronze age, and bottom, do not contain metal, but with a clearly Neolithic tools, Dating from the stone age. These discoveries are extremely enriched the archaeological material of prehistoric era. Up to 1854. the remains of the stone age, before the archaeologists were limited to products made from stone, horns and bones, broken pottery, shells and a blown or rotten organic remains, which, incidentally, had not yet learned to analyze. Any surviving organic remains (except of bone, horn and shells), archaeologists did not know. In pile settlements due to the ability of the water to prevent rotting, preserved wood, leather, woolen and linen cloth, yarn, grain cereals, fruits and vegetables, cattle dung and even baked bread. From ancient sludge were extracted varied wood products – from a huge hollowed-out log canoes, paddles, bows, bowls and dishes, buckets, clubs, combs for carding wool and flax, handles of axes and knives, the first in the history of mankind the furniture in the form of remnants of rough benches, tables and chests; found wheat, barley, millet, peas, lentils, carrots, apples, and the mass of products from flax and wool: yarns, laces, ropes, lace, network, netting, fabric and knitted items. Discovered were the remains of dwellings, but also facilities for livestock and storage of stocks. Were found the bones of domestic animals – cows (most)g sheep, goats, horses, pigs and dogs. This alone is a short list of findings speaks to the opportunities that have opened before, archeologists to restore the historical picture of the technology and Economics of primitive man.
Not less remarkable were the opening of the monuments of the early iron age. In 1573 near the city Galinette in Upper Austria in one of the ancient salt mine, was found, soaked with salt and so well preserved, the body of a worker who died, apparently, in the crash. The same body was found Yves 1616, And he and other churchmen were buried according to Christian rites, although it is clear that the dead do not professed the Catholic religion. Finally, in 1846 there was opened a burial ground (an ancient cemetery), and began systematic excavations.
Excavations uncovered more than a thousand graves with trophozoites and tropaeolaceae. Many burials were very rich and belonged, presumably, to the owners of mining and salt traders. They have a lot of products from iron and bronze. Dominated by iron weapons and bronze tools, ornaments and utensils. Attract the attention of vessels of clay, delicately painted and painted. Later similar burials were discovered on the territory of Czechoslovakia, southern Germany, in Eastern France, in the North of the Balkan Peninsula. They all date from the first half of the first Millennium BC
The rustle of the turning of the inventory of these graves scattered over a vast territory, gave the archaeologists reason to combine them into one archaeological era, named after the first find hallstatts, or just Hallstatt. Sometimes the early iron age, characterized hallstattian culture, called “projectnum age” because iron tools not yet supplanted the bronze and bronze competed with iron.
In the early 60-ies of the XIX century was discovered a fortified settlement (Gorodishche) following Hallstatt period of the early iron age in the area La-Ten in Switzerland, near the Northern tip of lake Neuchâtel. The vast majority of things found in Latenian settlement,- a weapon. Alone long iron swords found more than a hundred. But very few ceramics and almost no female ornaments. It was, apparently, all-male, military settlement. The monuments of this period, called latenian, or just plate, were also discovered in the territory covering the whole of France, the Danube basin to the Carpathian mountains and a large part of the Balkan Peninsula. The creators and bearers of latenian culture were the ancient Celts, and its wide dissemination is due to large movements of Celtic tribes, which began in the middle of the first Millennium BC and reached Asia Minor.