Nearing completion of the archaeological excavations of the ancient works on Kozelsk is scheduled for summer
Archaeological research Kozelsk, one of the oldest cities in the lands of the Chernigov Principality – has begun relatively recently. The first excavations were organized in 1992 by the Institute of archaeology RAS, their main aim was to identify the location of Kozelsk, destroyed by Batu Khan in 1238 Works were wide-ranging and comprehensive, was attended by soil scientists, geomorphologists, geophysicists, experts were invited leading Russian historians and archaeologists. But the result was unexpected: the cultural layer of ancient time (11th-13th centuries) on the locations of excavations and pits were absent. In the end, in scientific publications, there was an assumption about the localization of annalistic city in completely different places, and not in Kozelsk on the Zhizdra.
The historical geography of the upper Oka archaeological region there was a new problem. The results of the work were of great public resonance not only at district level but also at regional and Federal. They began to affect on the policy of the Ministry of education and culture of the Kaluga region. Especially acute the problem is in connection with the assignment Applied for in 2009 with the title “City of military glory” (articles in the Federal media type “Kaluga archaeologists can cancel the decree of the President”, etc.).
Kaluga archaeologists, in contrast, continued to look for traces of the ancient in Kozelsk Kozelsk modern – the regional centre of Kaluga region and the search was very successful. The excavations, organized in 1992 by Moscow, was carried out within the medieval fortress of Kozelsk, the location of which is well-known (on the cards of the 18th century remains of the earthen ramparts). In 2010-2013 research was also conducted in the Central historical part of the city, but outside the boundaries of a medieval fortress on a hill near the mouth of Draguseni (the territory of the former bakery and private property). Currently there is no doubt that this area of the modern city occupies the site of the citadel (the fortress) ancient Kozelsk. During the excavations there were revealed and studied well-preserved cultural layer, containing abundance of ancient material, including the pre-Mongol stage. The issue with the localization of the ancient Kozelsk in the result of the work of these years was withdrawn. Continue reading
Since 1822 thousands of animals have been discovered, which previously was not known, many of which are called “living fossils”. The so-called animals known only by their fossilized bones and presumed to have been extinct for millions of years and was used as “proof” of evolution. But then it was discovered, much to the disappointment of scientists that these animals are living today in different parts of the world .
This term was invented by Charles Darwin. In his work the Origin of species he called lungfish and other fish species, whose form from its inception has remained unchanged, “anomalous forms”. “actually can be called living fossils” .
Living fossils are living proof of the accuracy with which reproduces the plants and animals, and also confirm the fact that many of them haven’t changed at all.
Once it was thought that the Okapi was extinct until then, until they were discovered alive. But once these animals were used as proof that the horse evolved.
Australian and African coelacanths are actually living fossils. They all look like “primitive” and they are youthpalace, which is divided by partitions. It is obvious that Latimer can’t be our ancestor, because for 400 million years they have remained unchanged . Another animal, the horseshoe crab, it would be even more suitable candidate in our common ancestors. It looks “primitive”, and during the breeding season (when he spawns), he emerges from the ocean to the land. However, this animal is also a living fossil, which first appeared about 425 million years ago [ET*] in the rocks of the Silurian period, and during all this time remains unchanged . Continue reading
Two-week archaeological expedition of Mariupol state University conducted excavations of the mound in the Novoazovsk area. To find the real sources of the historical past of mankind the students prompted the “black diggers”, which destroyed the centre hills in search of treasure. Read more about the campaign, “Donbass” said the commander, lecturer, Department of historical disciplines of the Moscow state University Vyacheslav Zabavin and master of history, assistant head of the expedition Sergei Nebrat.
The robbers destroyed the monument of history
In the fall of 2010 Mariupol archaeologists out to explore and studying the terrain on the land Pavlodolskaya of the village Council, saw pit field arable extortionate. That there worked “black diggers”, there was no doubt – the hole in the hill was done professionally, and in it and on the surface of the mound, archaeologists have found human bones, fragments of decayed wood and cernovodeanu ceramic chips.
It is likely that these findings diggers were not interested in or they weren’t identified, because this needs a specialskills. Often in mounds you can find products from precious metals, but by making an indentation in one and a half meters and not finding expensive artifacts, the robbers took off. This historical monument was destroyed, – is indignant Sergey Nebrat.
As such, the archaeologists found a mound last fall – in the heart of upland “black diggers” dug a big hole.
About this choice the citizens of Mariupol reported in the Institute of archaeology of the National Academy of science, Ministry of culture and tourism and requested permission to rescue excavations. To hold them decided not to let unscrupulous diggers continue to destroy the grave of their ancestors and themselves to find ancient artefacts and transfer them to the Mariupol local history Museum for the preservation. The court gave the green light, and at the end of June the students went on an expedition. Continue reading