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Scientists have discovered why 14.5 thousand years ago

A new genetic analysis of archaeological finds has shown that some of the early inhabitants of Europe mysteriously disappeared by the end of the last ice age, and were largely replaced by other.

The discovery was confirmed by the analysis of dozens of ancient fossils, collected throughout Europe. Genetic replacement is likely to be the result of rapid climate change, which earlier inhabitants of Europe are unable to adapt quickly enough, says study co-author, Cosimo Post, archaeogenetic doctoral student at the University of tübingen in Germany.

The temperature change at the time was “huge compared to climate change in this century” . — told the Post. “Imagine that the environment has changed quite dramatically”.

Twisted family tree

Europe has a long and complicated genetic heritage. Genetic studies have shown that the first modern humans who came from Africa, somewhere between 40 and 70 thousand years ago, soon began to mate with local Neanderthals. At the beginning of the agricultural revolution, 10-12 thousand years ago, farmers from the Middle East walked across Europe, gradually displacing the local hunter-gatherers.  thousand years ago, nomadic horsemen called Yamna came from the steppes of the present Ukraine and mingled with the local population. In addition, according to the survey for 2013, published in the journal Nature Communications . found another lost group of ancient Europeans mysteriously vanished about 4.5 thousand years ago. Continue reading

A complex path of evolution

Geological research has convincingly shown that during the existence of Australopithecus the Earth’s climate became more dry, rain forests receded. Australopithecus lay in wait for the danger in open, treeless spaces. They needed to obtain food, including hunting. The lack of strong claws, teeth, adequate muscular strength has led to unique achievements, namely: the use of stone, sticks as tools and protection tools.

All in some way affected their evolution. As shown by the finds of parts of the skeletons of the Australopithecines are similar to man in structure of the several parts of the body. They moved on two legs. Over time they have adapted to changing environmental conditions.

So, the anthropoids, and fossil apes, in groups-herds, used the first tools: rocks, sticks for defense and obtaining food. But what food?

The materials of archaeological, geological and paleontological research in recent decades has shown that the Australopithecines used not only vegetable foods but also animals.

Hunting occupied a large place in the economy of the ancient people — it is an indisputable fact, but the premise of development as a form of practice originated and formed another prehuman stage of anthropogenesis. Predposlednyaya (omnivorous) originated from arboreal monkeys in the moment of transition, when they began to eat new kinds of plants growing on the ground, small animals, insects, perhaps, and the corpses of large animals and then to hunt with the stones that were originally used only in self-defense. Therefore, bone remains of animals, such as baboons, found along with the bones of Australopithecus, which bore traces of blows with blunt objects, they force you to change perspective on the nature of economic activities of the ancient hominid as a purely collecting economy. The predominance in the diet of human ancestors eating meat is a positive impact on the formation of the brain of higher fossil apes that had already been noted by F. Engels. Continue reading

The history of the ancient world

Stonehenge is an icon of prehistoric British culture, an Enigma that interested archaeologists and tourists for centuries. Why would he come here? What is its value? And which forces inspired its creators? A team of international archaeologists have found a new approach that, perhaps, is the key to the mysteries of Stonehenge.

The document, known as papyrus Harris, or the will of the Pharaoh Ramesses III, describes the last will of the ruler on the throne. But scientists are far more intrigued by another part of the papyrus, which refers to the untold reserves of gold and copper that were used by the Pharaoh, and clearly indicated that the ore mined and abandoned by the gods. Experts began to look for other documents of the same period. On the Turin papyrus map, which is stored in Italy, indicates the location of the mines, where the gods had mined gold and copper. This 15 kilometer stretch Addie-ha-Mamat in the Arabian desert.

It is known that the mankind many times faced with amazing finds, such as skeletons, skulls which had a rather strange shape. And recently there was another mystery – archaeologists have discovered in Peru the mummy of humanoid creatures with huge heads. The sensation was the fact that the first studies have shown that despite some similarities with the person that is not a people, but then what is it? Fudge uchenyh visionary or still another indirect fact in favor of the hypothesis about the existence of extraterrestrial civilizations, representatives of which. perhaps, once visited our Earth? Continue reading

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